Crack Design Review 2017 Keygen [UPDATED]
Abstract:Cracking is a major concern in building applications. Cracks may arise from shrinkage, freeze/thawing and/or structural stresses, amongst others. Several solutions can be found but superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) seem to be interesting to counteract these problems. At an early age, the absorbed water by the SAPs may be used to mitigate autogenous and plastic shrinkage. The formed macro pores may increase the freeze/thaw resistance. The swelling upon water ingress may seal a crack from intruding fluids and may regain the overall water-tightness. The latter water may promote autogenous healing. The use of superabsorbent polymers is thus very interesting. This review paper summarizes the current research and gives a critical note towards the use of superabsorbent polymers in cementitious materials.Keywords: hydrogel; autogenous shrinkage; freeze-thaw resistance; self-sealing; self-healing
Crack Design Review 2017 Keygen
To initiate a crack and successfully form CJs, the electrode-bridges and notches should be designed such that σmax overcomes the fracture strength of the electrode material σ*max. For the specific electrode-bridge design shown in Figure 2, the calculated σmax is 3.4 times the internal tensile stress s of the electrode layer. We will see that this is sufficient to initiate the fracture in electrode-bridges made of TiN in our experiments, but may or may not be for other electrode materials. A high yield of crack formation, which is desirable for fabricating CJs in a reliable way, thus involves adequate design of the electrode-bridges and notches to achieve KtnW/Wcos>σ*max. To satisfy this relation, we can select and design: (i) the material, and aim at minimizing the fracture strength σ*max, (ii) the fabrication process, and aim at maximizing the internal stress s, (iii) the design of the electrode-bridges and notches, and aim at maximizing the notch effect Ktn and the constriction effect W/Wneck. In this section, we will focus on (iii).
The guidelines to design notches in a way so that they promote crack formation are simple in theory as it requires making the notches as sharp and acute as possible, thus minimizing r and α, and maximizing t. In practice, however, it is not possible to freely adjust these geometrical parameters since lithography and pattern-transfer steps will severely impede accurate reproduction of the notch geometry. E-beam lithography could in theory resolve U-shaped notches, while optical lithography would produce more V-shaped notches with a larger notch radius r. Ktn can be accurately estimated for both U and V-shaped notches using textbook tables28. Knowing Ktn and the geometry of the electrode-bridge, the maximum occurring localized stress at the notches σmax can be derived using Equation (4), and if σmax>σ*max, the CJ should form successfully.
The sharp transition between cracked and uncracked electrode-bridges reveals that it is possible to gain high control over crack formation, allowing us to predict that a specific electrode-bridge and notch design will work, while another will not, as shown in Figure 3. This could be utilized for example, to fabricate an array consisting of CJs that remain uncracked but that are close to fracture. We will later demonstrate that the application of external factors such as controlled substrate cooling and bending, thereby momentarily increasing the tensile stress σbridge in the electrode-bridge, can trigger the fracture event of electrode-bridge designs that were uncracked after the release etching step.
Anchors have two main effects on the features of CJs. First, anchors affect the definition of the width of the gap since a non-negligible part of the anchors is undercut during the release etching step, as indicated in Figure 6a. Initially under biaxial tensile stress, the anchor overhangs are free to relax in the direction of the beam axis after crack formation, thereby contributing to the total electrode contraction that defines the gap-width, as shown by the blue arrows in Figure 6a. Yet, as the anchor overhangs remain constrained in the direction perpendicular to the beam axis, the overhangs contract per unit length to a different extent (typically larger, due to the Poisson effect) than the electrode parts after crack formation, as shown in Figure 6b. For a given undercut length U/2, the linear relation between L and w for CJs is increased by the total contraction u of both anchor overhangs, as indicated in Figure 6c, which may be significant in case of large undercuts. This additional contraction caused by the anchor overhangs should be considered in the design of tunneling junctions as it can easily amount to a few nanometers, which could cause the distance between the cracked electrode surfaces to exceed the direct tunneling range. Nonetheless, the total contraction u caused by the anchor overhangs can be predicted with high accuracy by 3D FEM simulations of CJs that account for the geometry and position of the anchor overhangs defined by the undercut.
Secondly, the anchor design affects the distribution of the stress fields in the electrode-bridge and at the notched constriction of the electrode-bridge, potentially altering the crack path. In the baseline electrode-bridge design shown in all Figures so far, the anchors connecting the electrodes to the substrate are placed symmetrically on the central axis of the electrode-bridge. In this configuration, before fracture, the tensile force acting at the notched constriction of the electrode-bridge is parallel to the central axis of the electrode-bridge, and the crack thus propagates perpendicularly to this axis, as illustrated in Figures 7a and b. In contrast, an electrode-bridge with anchors that are not placed symmetrically with respect to the central axis of the electrode-bridge fractures along a path that is tilted, as illustrated in Figure 7c. An example of a fabricated CJ featuring a tilted crack is shown in Figure 7d. A tilted crack may be detrimental to the functionality of the CJ since the electrodes may contract in directions that are not perpendicular to the crack direction, as shown in Figure 7d, thus leading to misalignment of the otherwise matching electrode topographies. For cracked electrodes exhibiting a surface roughness comparable to the gap-width, misalignment in electrode topographies may even cause undesirable mechanical and electrical contact.
Relevant studies were retrieved through a comprehensive search of Medline and PsychINFO databases (1967 to 2017). In total, 4903 publications were identified. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria and quality assessment, 154 articles were deemed relevant. Peer-reviewed articles, written in English, addressing the relationship between empowerment (predictor) and medication adherence (outcome) were included.
Citation: Náfrádi L, Nakamoto K, Schulz PJ (2017) Is patient empowerment the key to promote adherence? A systematic review of the relationship between self-efficacy, health locus of control and medication adherence. PLoS ONE 12(10): e0186458.
The studies had to meet the following criteria in order to be included in the present systematic review: (1) peer-reviewed articles, (2) written in English, (3) studies having observational or experimental design, (4) addressing the relationship between medication adherence and at least one aspect of empowerment, (5) empowerment should be considered either as an independent variable or as a mediator, (6) medication adherence had to be assessed as an outcome variable and (7) studies including an adult sample. We excluded papers which were not available in English, included a sample of youth, or focused on over the counter medications. Moreover, qualitative studies, commentaries, essays, study protocols, literature reviews, conceptual papers and conference abstracts were also excluded.
This systematic review is not without limitations. First, our approach might not have captured other conceptualizations of empowerment existing in relevant literature. Second, no quantitative value can be presented to demonstrate the relationship between empowerment and medication adherence, as neither of the concepts is currently operationalized consistently across studies, which would allow us to conduct a meta-analysis. Thirdly, the medication adherence measures only rarely distinguish between the intentional and unintentional dimensions of non-adherence, possibly leading to a cancelling out of the relationship between empowerment and intentional non-adherence, with the inclusion of unintentional non-adherence. Studies using objective measures more often reported null findings compared to studies applying subjective adherence measures, introducing potential measurement bias to the analysis. Fourthly, the vast majority of the included studies had a cross-sectional correlational design, therefore we cannot draw any causal inference regarding the relationship between empowerment and adherence from them. Moreover, we included observational and interventional studies together in the systematic review, which introduces substantial heterogeneity. However, given the importance of findings emerging from interventional studies for the practical implications and insights gained in causal relationships, including intervention studies might merit particular prominence. Furthermore, we may unavoidably have missed unpublished studies or those that were not captured by the search strategy, potentially leading to publication bias. However, we put a great effort into avoiding publication bias with such preventative measures as searching without limiting by outcome . The study samples were heterogeneous regarding characteristics such as medical condition, age and education, which may have affected the results. The applied quality assessment checklist did not recommend a cut-off score for low quality, thus all studies with different quality scores were included in the final analysis. Lastly, we included only papers published in the English language, and this might have resulted in missing some relevant work written in other languages.